Friday, March 17, 2017

IB English Commentary -- Meeting at Night by Robert Browning

A student wrote the Nardvark with the following question:

My name is Laura and I'm a grade 10 IB student this year. In my English course, we are currently analyzing poems about love before we write our in-class commentaries. I was wondering if there was any way you could help me analyze my poems more in depth, or if you had any tips for writing a commentary quickly and effectively (as I only have one 75 minute period to get it done).
-Laura, Canada

The Nardvark, always eager to help, went straight to Sparknotes, where he promptly got distracted by a clickbait article on the sidebar featuring a picture of pretty actresses wearing cute summer dresses. 

Meanwhile, the Nerdvark wrote this:

Hi Laura, thanks for your letter. I’m going to take a look at 

“Meeting at Night” by Robert Browning.

Since you are in grade 10 IB, I assume that means you are not yet in DP but you’re studying the skills you’ll need in DP. Keep in mind that in DP IB, whether you’re studying lang and lit or literature, you’ll get to study a bunch of poems by one poet rather than a bunch of poems with one theme. Your Individual Oral Commentary may be on one of these poems. Meanwhile, it’s important to master the skills of commentary because in literature, your paper 1 exam will give you an unseen poem to write a commentary on, in 1.5 hours at SL or 2 hours at HL.

So with the IOCs in mind, let’s look first at your poet and get a bit of context or background information. Robert Browning wrote “Meeting at Night” while he was wooing another poet, Elizabeth Barrett. Elizabeth’s father didn’t approve of her relationship with Robert, so they had to meet secretly. “Meeting at Night” brilliantly captures a clandestine meeting between secret lovers. Eventually Liz and Rob got married and she became Elizabeth Barrett Browning. You may have heard of her from such famous poems as “How do I Love Thee? Let me Count the Ways.”

Now, unlike an essay, a commentary does not have to follow a formal structure, but IB does give you a mark for “organization,” so it’s not a good idea to just ramble about the poem. You do need to structure your commentary in some way, and give it a sense of focus and unity. Also, your paragraphs should each be structured around a main point and fully developed. I recommend the PEEL structure to paragraphs.

Overall, to give your commentary focus, I recommend starting with an introduction that gives the meaning and message of the poem, and then going through the poem either line by line or by looking at the most effective poetic devices, and showing how each point you make ties in to the poem’s meaning and message.

Before we can do that, we need to read through the poem several times.

The first time you read a poem, write a little note of your first thoughts or your first reaction up in the top right corner.

Then read the poem again and try to get an overall idea of the tone/mood/atmosphere and general meaning. It helps at this point to highlight the words or phrases that establish the mood.

Then you read the poem again, this time using your keen eye for poetic devices. As you find them, highlight them and jot down what type of device they are (e.g. alliteration, simile.)

By now you should be starting to get a handle on the deeper meaning of the poem, and its message. Write them down.

Now read through the poem again, and note down the effect of each of the literary devices you highlighted last time. Also, look for any sort of overall, sweeping devices. For example, some poems are extended metaphors; some use lots of imagery, and some have a lot of sound devices that contribute to their mood or meaning.

Now you should plan out your commentary. Some students find it beneficial to start with a mind map showing how each of the devices connect to the meaning or message of the poem. Others prefer to do a linear, outline-style plan. Whatever works for you, do it. Is this really necessary, Nardvark, you might ask? Nardvark doesn’t know; he doesn’t plan anything. That’s why Nardvark is still in grade five and he’s thirty-six years old. But according to Nerdvark, research shows that students who plan their written responses ALWAYS get higher marks. Remember, part of the mark for commentary, either IOC or paper 1, is for organization.

Since you, Laura, are studying ten poems, I’d recommend writing a plan out for each one in preparation for your exam. Then at exam time, you’ll be able to sit down and jot down your plan super quickly from memory. That gives you plenty of time to write out your commentary.

Now, Nerdvark promised that he’d explain this poem for you. So let’s start by looking at Nerdvark’s annotations:
"Meeting at Night" by Robert Browning annotations -- if you can't quite make it out, try clicking on it for a larger sized image.

Here's Nerdvark's quick interpretation of "Meeting at Night" based on his annotations:

The poem is about a nighttime meeting between secret lovers. In the first stanza, the narrator is in a boat traveling across the sea and then reaches a cove (a hidden beach) and pulls the boat up onto the sand. In the second stanza, he crosses the beach and three fields, reaches a farm, and signals his lover through the window pane by tapping. She lights a match and welcomes him in a whisper and then they embrace.

The tone of the poem is nervous as the narrator is sneaking around at night, clandestinely meeting his lover in a secluded farm house. Some of the words and phrases that add to this secretive tone are:  "gray," "black," "half-moon" -- the poem takes place at night, probably just after dusk as the moon is "yellow... large and low." The atmosphere is dark and quiet; he's being very sneaky, and his nervousness is evident through the "startled" waves that "leap" -- this personification gives the nervous feeling of the narrator to his surroundings. The narrator first enters the poem in line five with "As I gain," giving the poem a bit of a first-person narrative effect. It's like the narrator is relaying an experience to the reader. There is some alliteration in line five of the 'p' sound in "pushing prow" which could mimic the sound of the waves hitting the wooden hull of the boat, the paddle dipping into the water, or the nervous narrator's pumping heart. The next line has sibilance in "its speed i' the slushing sand" which could mimic the quiet sound of the little waves lapping the beach and the boat hitting the wet sand at the edge. As the boat hits the shore, its speed is "quenched," as the narrator's desire to be in his lover's arms will soon too be quenched.

The pace is a little faster in the second stanza via short words with light vowel sounds: "a mile of warm sea-scented beach" trips off the tongue as the speaker is getting closer to his lover and starts presumably striding quickly across the beach and through the fields. The farm "appears," it seems almost magically, like when you have to go through a lot of work and cross many obstacles and then your goal seems to suddenly be right in front of you. The onomatopoeia of "tap" is a bit of aural imagery; the reader can hear the light sound of the narrator signalling his lover through the window pane. The scratch and blue spurt relay aural and visual imagery of the exact moment the match is lit from within the farm house; as after a long, arduous struggle, sometimes the moment you reach your goal seems very quick. There is sibilance in line 11: "voice less loud, thro' its joys and fears," mimicking the whisper of his lover's greeting and maintaining the quiet, secretive atmosphere of the poem. The last line uses synecdoche -- the hearts, symbols of love, represent the two lovers as they embrace. Their heart beats are louder than the voice of the narrator's lover. This hyperbole enhances the sense of nervousness as the clandestine "meeting" from the title finally takes place.  

The poem has a unique rhyme scheme: ABCCBA which could mimic the idea of going in and out, as the narrator has to travel so far to meet with his lover and then presumably has to make the same journey in reverse before morning; since the rhyme scheme is repeated, we get the impression that these meetings are repeated. The poem is short, like the short period of time that the lovers get to spend together during their nighttime meetings. The rhythm is more or less iambic tetrameter, which gives the poem a light, fun feel and also mimics the narrator's fluttering heartbeat as he nears his clandestine destination. All over, the rhyme, rhythm, meter, and euphonic sounds of the words combine to make "Meeting at Night" enjoyable to read, enhancing the pleasurable feeling of the narrator as he nears his lover.

"Meeting at Night" is not just about the lengths one poet went to to meet his lover for a secret meeting; it is about the lengths we're all willing to go to in order to reach our goals. For this reason, you could say "Meeting at Night" is an extended metaphor, in which the sea, beach, and fields represent obstacles we must tackle as we work towards our goals, the lover represents the goals, and the final embrace in the last line represents the satisfaction we feel when we finally make it.

Learn more about perfecting your skills for IB commentary by clicking here

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

How to Make a Book Trailer – Part 3

So, I’m assuming you’ve come from Part 2. If you haven’t read Part 1 or Part 2, do so now. Then come back here.

Okay, you’re back! Great. That means you’ve done a story-board for your book trailer, and you’ve compiled all the images, video clips, and audio that you are going to use.

Making a Book Trailer Video

The next step is to edit it all together into a marvelous book trailer video! I can’t tell you how to use your video editing software, because there are so many options for software out there and they’re all different. Here are tutorials for your basic software that comes with your computer:

Windows Movie Maker: Narrated by a nice American lady.

IMovie: Vanessa here is also American. Her volume is quite low, though.

Here’s a tutorial for how to use Adobe Premiere Pro, my personal favourite video editing software. Warning: it’s expensive. But if you want to be a pro video editor or if you think you’re going to have a lot of multimedia projects at school, this is a good investment. Kris here claims that he can teach you how to use it in 20 minutes... go!

Ready to put your video together? Remember: a fantastic book trailer for school should…
  •     Set the tone or mood of the book through the words, music, colours, and images you select.
  •     Give the book’s HOOK, but not too much information.
  •     Make the viewer want to read the book.
  •     Be quick, catchy, and enigmatic – think lots of visuals, not many words.
  •     Show the book cover and give the author’s name and book title.
  •     Show any previous books if your book is part of a series.
Have fun! 

If you have done a book trailer you’re particularly proud of, please link it in the comments so my readers can watch it.

Do you want to see some excellent book trailers done by my students? Check these out:

Book trailer for Parvana's Journey by Deborah Ellis (done by Martha, grade 10):

Book trailer for A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway (done by Amna, grade 10):

More awesome book trailers done by my students are coming soon! To a screen near you! :)

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

How to Make a Book Trailer - Part 2

So you've come here from Part 1, eh? That means you've already done your storyboard. If this is not true, you need to backtrack a little and read Part 1. It's linked. Click it. Then come back here.

Oh, you're back? Great! Well, in Part 1 you learned that every good book trailer starts with a storyboard. Now that you know what media you're going to use, you need to:

Make a Folder

The next step, once you have your storyboard complete, is to gather all your media into one folder. So, go to your computer's hard drive and make a folder. Call it "Book Trailer" or something like that. 
Then, you need to fill up your folder with all the stuff you need for your book trailer, as per your storyboard. You need images, videos, special effects, music... you might be creating your own (if you're awesome), finding stuff on the internet, or combining your own material and found material. 

A word of caution: a lot of stuff that's on the internet is copyrighted.  You can go onto Google or YouTube and search and find pretty much anything, but pretty much everything is copyrighted. That's because when someone creates something, they automatically get copyrights. "What do I care?" you ask. "I'm just making a book trailer for a school assignment." Well, that may be true, but if you use copyrighted material you run several risks:
1. The risk of plagiarizing: Plagiarism is defined as taking someone else's words or ideas and presenting them as your own. So if you do not give credit to every source you use, you are plagiarizing. That might not matter if you're making a grade eight book trailer, but it will matter when you're in college or university and you're given a multimedia assignment. So just be careful to give credit to all your sources.
2. The risk of punishment: If you post your book trailer on social media and it includes copyright material, you will be punished. In YouTube that means you'll get a copyright strike against you. Three strikes on YouTube and you're out. On Facebook, they'll just take it down. So if you need to post this book trailer as part of the assignment, be aware that copyright material, especially music and video clips, could result in your trailer being removed from the site. 

3. The risk of screwing up: Read your teacher's instructions carefully. Some teachers have certain expectations, such as expecting your video clips to all be recorded by you. Be aware of where your teacher sets the line between creating your own book trailer and trying to pass off someone else's work as your own.

So, now that we have all that legal mumbo-jumbo out of the way, let's take a look at the folder Nerdvark created for his book trailer for "In a Cat's Eye":
Nerdvark's book trailer folder. As you can see,
there is no copyrighted material in that baby!
These are some sites where you can find free stuff you're allowed to use in your multimedia projects. Some of them request that you mention them as sources or link to them, and some ask you to sign up. If you want to search for your own, do a search as normal and include the words "free stock"
Video effects:
Sound effects:
Music: and don't forget, YouTube also has tonnes of free music for you to add to any video you upload.

Of course, it's always best to do your own photos, filming, and narration. If you're really hardcore, you can even create your own music. Now go forth, and fill up your folder!

If you're finished with Part 2, click here to go on to How to Make a Book Trailer, Part 3.

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

How to Make a Book Trailer - Part 1

These days, thanks to the advances in technology that are spreading across the planet, innocent children everywhere are being forced to create multimedia assignments instead of the good, old-fashioned book report that can be easily stolen from many internet sources. 

The most evil multimedia presentation of all has to be the book trailer. It takes a lot of skills with many different types of software to produce a half-decent book trailer. Sure, you can steal one off the internet, but the problem with that is, most book trailers out there today were actually produced by other students! So if their work is crap, you're not going to get a good mark for it! Of course, there are the professional book trailers actually produced to promote the book, but if you try to pass that off as your own work, your teacher will smell the scent of your cheating butt a mile away. 

What is a kid to do?

To find out the answer, we have turned to the all-knowing Nerdvark. Nerdvark now presents the book trailer tutorial, step by step. Today we have step one:

Draw a storyboard

Every professional video, from Disney movies to Adventure Time cartoons to Volkswagen commercials to Fine Brothers YouTube videos, begins with a storyboard, and yours will too.

There are lots of formats for a storyboard. You have a lot of options, but as long as your storyboard lets you plan out the various scenes of your book trailer and show what audio and visual elements will be included in each scene, you're good.

Nerdvark tells us that every book trailer has to have the following elements:

  • visuals
  • audio
  • the name and author of the book

Visuals can include photos, pictures, videos, animations, text on the screen, special effects, transitions, and credits. You can film yourself or your friends acting out parts of the book, or even film yourself acting as the author reading out his or her favourite passage. You can put in comments from critics, which you can usually find on the back cover. Basically it's whatever the audience sees when watching the book trailer.

Audio can include narration, dialogue, music, special effect sounds... whatever the audience hears when watching the book trailer.

Every book trailer should include the actual book, usually in the form of a picture of the book at the end of the trailer along with the title and author of the book. 

Here's an example of the storyboard the Nerdvark did for his upcoming book trailer for an anthology of speculative fiction stories called In a Cat's Eye, published by Pole to Pole Publishing:
Nerdvark's storyboard for In a Cat's Eye, an anthology by Pole to Pole Publishing

Speculative fiction includes stories like horror, science fiction, fantasy, dystopian future, and alternate history. In a Cat's Eye has lots of such stories, so Nerdvark chose just a few for his book trailer. 

To do this storyboard, Nerdvark used Corel PhotoPaint. You could use another drawing or image editing program, or you could do it with a pencil on a piece of paper. 

For each scene (there are six on this storyboard), the top box is where you put the title or number of the scene. The middle, big box is where you show what will be SEEN in your book trailer for that scene. The bottom box is where you write what will be HEARD in your book trailer for that scene. 

Before you begin working on the actual video, make sure you have your storyboard exactly how you want it. If you change your mind about order, you can re-number the scenes or move the scenes around. If you decide you don't want a scene, cross it off. It's much easier and quicker to make these types of changes on the storyboard than on the actual video. 

Come back next time to see how to start transforming your storyboard to your actual video! Chow for now! (i.e. it's dinner time!)

Go on to Part 2. 

Sunday, October 30, 2016

A* Descriptive Writing for IGCSEs

Recently, a student wrote to the Nardvark:

Hello, I actually needed some help for my descriptive writing since i really don't know how and where to start it from but i really want to attempt it in the exams if possible and get an A* in English subject . Also if u could give me some topics to start on.

In his usual incredibly helpful and attentive manner, Nardvark printed off the letter in really huge font to waste as much paper as possible, crumpled it up, and tossed it at his wastebasket. He missed.

The paper ball bounced off the top of the growing accumulation of debris surrounding the waste basket and rolled to a lazy stop at the base of the Nardvark's stinky laundry pile. The Nardvark stopped wearing clothes several weeks ago because he ran out of clean laundry, but that's okay because he's very furry. Anyway, the odour emanating off the pile of mouldy clothing, which is not unlike cream-of-rotten-eggmcmuffin-and-toilet-brush-graveyard soup, helps Nardvark find his way back to his room in the dark. Nardvarks don't have very good night vision, but they have excellent senses of smell due to their very long nostrils.

The dirty laundry pile is also a valuable tool in the Nardvark's daily life, because without it he would have to lift his feet quite high in order to get in and out of bed. Nardvark's legs are quite stubby so he prefers not to exert too much energy by lifting his feet all the time. When he finishes playing X-Box for the day, instead of standing up and walking over to the bed, he simply rolls onto his back and then flops towards the laundry pile. He then half-rolls half-flops his way up the laundry pile to the surface of the bed, much like an overweight walrus coming ashore onto a chunk of arctic ice. At the crack of noon when he wakes up, Nardvark merely rolls down the pile in the direction of the kitchen. 

Nardvark's kitchen is much what you might expect, having visited his laundry pile. The lower cupboards all contain food, and to make his foraging easier, the food is sorted into "sandwich filling" and "pizza topping." The top cupboards are difficult to reach, and therefore contain only dishes, which Nardvark rarely uses because they're difficult to reach. (an example of "begging the question" by the way.) Nardvark takes care of his shape (a pear) by eating six to seven meals a day, except on weekends because he is not awake for long enough to eat so many meals. For these meals he alternates between sandwiches and pizza. Nardvark's favourite sandwich fillers include peanut butter, mayonnaise, mashed banana, five-pepper hot sauce, jelly beans, and fruit cup. These are also his favourite pizza toppings, which is why the border separating sandwich fillers from pizza toppings in his kitchen is very fuzzy and gray, like an out-of-focus photo of a sleeping elephant.

Descriptive Writing How-To

I guess what I'm trying to get at is, this is the sort of writing you need to do on the composition section of the IGCSE English exam. This is specifically first-language English, and the international course syllabus is number 0500. If you're studying this course, you're going to have to write a creative composition in Paper 3 Section 2.

You have a choice of four questions: two are narrative and the other two are descriptive. There will be a question or a scenario for each. It could be a first sentence, a brief synopsis of a situation, or a leading question. You have to pick one and write a composition.

Descriptive Composition Pointers

For descriptive composition, you need to keep in mind that you are NOT writing a story. There is no plot, no climax, probably no dialogue. You can have a character and a setting, like in a narrative, but you will stick to describing the character and the setting. Your descriptive composition should NOT cover a span of time like a narrative. What you SHOULD focus on is creating an image in the reader's mind, and for this you need to use figurative language known as imagery. Remember that metaphor, simile, personification, and other figurative language tools like that all add to imgery.

For more on imagery look here.

To learn more about the descriptive task, click here.

In terms of topics, I highly recommed getting your hands on some past papers. Keep in mind that the orgainzation of the paper has changed recently (2015) so if you're looking at past papers from before that date, you'll see six instead of four options, and the other two are discursive or argumentative essays. Don't even be looking at those. Just pick your descriptive piece and write a practice composition.

Feel free to check your practice writing in the comments for this post and at some point the Nardvark might give you some feedback. It might even be useful!

Till next time, this is Nardvark, going for a nap.

Friday, April 29, 2016

IB English Literature Paper 2 - Last Minute Tips

Your IB English exams are just around the corner, and since it is the last minute, you are studying your butt off. You have only days to prepare, you are panicking because you feel like you have learned nothing in the last two years and there is no way you will be ready to write a literary essay. Sound familiar?

Relax. (written in pink, which is scientifically proven to be a relaxing colour. Also baby blue.  But I digress...)

The Nardvark is here to set your cray-cray mind at ease with:

Last Minute Tips to Excel on IB English Literature Paper 2

Or, rather, Nardvark will eat a PBJ (pretzel, broccoli, and jalapeno peppers sandwich) while the Nerdvark does all the hard work of giving you tips. Either way, you're the winner. Read on:

Unfortunately for the Nardvark, you have to write Paper 2 on at least two of the texts you studied in Part 3 of IB English Literature (Literary Genres)
  • Paper 2 consists of a bunch of questions. Your task is to write an essay in answer to one of the questions which addresses TWO OF THE WORKS YOU STUDIED IN PART 3 of the course.
  • To prepare for Paper 2, you need to do two things: 1. Review all your notes on your Part 3 works. 2. Review how to write an essay.
  • I would actually recommend re-reading your Part 3 works, or at least skimming through them, in preparation for Paper 2.
  • When you go into Paper 2, you need to time yourself. One great way to get a totally low, crappy mark on this paper is to randomly choose a question off the exam paper and scribble down your stream-of-thought answer as fast as you can and then nap for the remainder of the exam period. You are given a short amount of time to produce a brilliant essay; use it fully and follow the writing process.
  • Spend the first few moments selecting a question. This exam paper seems daunting because there are so many questions to choose from. Make it easier on yourself by first ELIMINATING all the questions you will not be able to choose from. That is to say, Part 3 of the IB English Literature course is on a specific genre -- defined as poetry, prose - novel and short story, prose - other than fiction, and drama. Whichever genre you studied, that's what you have to answer a question on in Paper 2. So either cross off all the questions for the other three genres, or put a big circle around the questions for your genre. There, that reduces the exam paper to something a lot more manageable, does it not?
  • Spend the next several minutes CONSIDERING THE QUESTIONS for your genre. Think about each question and figure out exactly what it is asking you to do. Criterion B, worth 20% of your overall mark for Paper 2, is "Response to the Question." So make sure you understand what the question is asking you to do before you begin your response.
  • Here is a sample of a Paper 2 question on poetry from the IB board:

A sample of a Paper 2 question on poetry from the IB board, which I easily found by Googling.

  • Let's analyze this question. First, what kind of essay is it asking you to write? Answer: discussion. Some questions might ask you to analyze, evaluate, or explain. Pay attention to the question word. Next, what is the topic? Answer: "the object of a poem is pleasure, not truth." So think about the poems you have studied. Do at least two of them appear to be written for pleasure rather than to demonstrate a truth of the world? Jot down some ideas in the margin of the question paper.
  • Analyze each of the questions in your genre like this before deciding which question you will answer.
  • Spend the next few minutes (5 - 10 minutes) OUTLINING/PLANNING your essay. Criterion A is for "Knowledge and Understanding," so you need to spend some time coming up with everything you know/understand about the two texts you'll be discussing and jot it down in point form. Criterion D is for "Organization and Development," so you'll want to plan out your essay instead of just rambling on, and you'll want to jot down all the ideas you will use to develop your points so you don't forget anything.
  • Spend approximately 50% of your time (one out of two hours for HL and 45 minutes out of 1.5 hours for SL) DRAFTING your essay. I recommend double-spacing so you'll have enough space to add to or correct your work.
  • Spend the rest of your time REVISING and then PROOFREADING your essay. Check that you've included enough information to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the works and that your writing is well-organized and flows. Criterion E is "Language," so you'll want to make sure your writing is clear, precise, and concise, your punctuation, grammar, and spelling is correct, and you've used the appropriate literary terms. It is totally acceptable to add to your essay, cross stuff off, or change things. If you want to add a whole bunch of stuff, like a whole paragraph, put in a little indicator like a star (*) where you want to add it, and then put the same indicator after the conclusion and add your extra paragraph. You will not lose marks for having stuff crossed out or added, but you will lose marks for not expressing yourself clearly, making mistakes, and writing incorrect stuff about the works. You will also lose marks for not answering the question, i.e. writing something totally unrelated to what the question is actually asking. So spend some time revising and proofreading to make sure your essay is brilliant. 
I would also recommend doing a practice paper to get your pacing down. You probably haven't written very many essays, especially ones that you do by hand and have a limited time for. If you write at least one practice paper and limit yourself to doing it in the allotted time, you'll feel a lot more prepared on exam day. 

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Last Minute Tips for IB English Literature Paper 1

Exams are coming up soon, and you might be starting to panic. Fear not, dear student, the Nardvark is here to help!

I always advise my students to follow a five-paragraph essay structure with PEE paragraphs. Although the IB board is not specific about how the literary analysis should be structured, this is a sort of simple catch-all for pretty much any literary essay. You can add as many PEE paragraphs as you want, so your five-paragraph essay might end up being a seven- or ten-paragraph essay, but the structure will still be sound.

Once in the exam, I recommend looking through the extracts quickly to see which one speaks to you more. Some students go in to the exam prepared to write about either the prose or the poetry, but it's not a good idea to limit yourself like that because the IB board always chooses pretty complex extracts and you want to be able to choose the one that is more suited to you. 

Next spend some time reading through your chosen extract several times and annotate it. You have 1.5 hours in SL or 2 hours in HL, and I'd recommend dedicating about 25% of your time to this analysis. If you're in SL, take a look at the guiding questions and try to find enough evidence in the extract to answer them. If you're in HL, you should be prepared to talk about the broad aspects of your extract such as progression, characters, plot (if applicable), tone, theme, structure/form, etc, AND the literary features. Remember that this is not an exercise in hunting down examples of literary tools -- you need to explain the effect on each. This is Appreciation of the Writer's Choices on the rubric.

Then spend a few moments to arrange your annotations into an outline. Consider your introduction, points in your PEE paragraphs, and a conclusion. Spend about 50% of your time drafting your response, and then spend the rest of your time rereading your writing. At this point you need to check your structure and language, two more points on the rubric. For a high mark, your structure should be unified, so if you find yourself rambling, try to insert sentences to link your ideas together. You also need to be precise and concise, so eliminate any extra wordiness (e.g. "I think", "It can be seen that," etc,) and repetition, and check your word choices to make sure you are using the correct literary terms. 

Before the exam, you should review all the literary terms (see here and here) you have learned in your course and make sure you can use them correctly, and practice with some past papers to get the timing right on the process I've outlined above.

If you have done some practice papers and want to send any of them to me, I can give you detailed, specific feedback. I charge for my services but since I am an IB examiner, the feedback I would give you would be very helpful in your exam preparations.